标签归档:scientific research

Understanding Stillbirths

a4c4c402e1f8641a43b2703b404f95b1When conceiving mothers receive the heart breaking news about their baby found dead in the womb, they get overwhelmed by grief. The can go from a happy anticipation of their child`s birth to a very painful moment of their death.

If the death of the fetus occurs after the 20 weeks of pregnancy, then that is what is referred to as stillbirth. According to biology articles, many stillbirths occur before child labor while others are experienced during labor and delivery.

Causes of Stillbirths

Scientific research proves that there are known causes of the condition. The common causes are-:

  1. Infections

Infections involving the expectant person, placenta of fetus result to 10-25% of stillbirths. They cause fetal death before the 28th week of pregnancy. They include viruses (parvovirus infection), urinary tract, and genital infection.

  1. Accidents in the Umbilical Cord

Research shows that umbilical cord accidents cause 3-5% of stillbirths. If the cord is abnormally placed in the placenta or a knot is present in the cord, then it leads to the death of the fetus since it is deprived of oxygen.

  1. Birth Defects

Research shows that 15-20% of stillbirths have one or more birth deficiencies.  Some are caused by chromosomal disorders like, Down syndrome while others result from environmental, genetic as well as unknown sources.

  1. Placental Problems

They cause 25% of stillborn babies. Placental abruption is a common cause of the condition. In this case, the placenta peels away from the uterine wall before the baby is born.  This can result to heavy bleeding and can threaten the life of the mother as well.

  1. Poor Growth of the Fetus

Slow fetus growth increases the risk of stillbirths. Women with high blood pressure or cigarette smokers experience slow fetal growth. Ultrasound is important in this situation as it shows how poorly the fetus is growing and enables one to carefully monitor it.

Prevention Measures

  • Avoid alcohol, smoking or buying street drugs. Any prescriptions should be authorized by your doctor.
  • Report sharp pain, vaginal bleeding and leakage.
  • If you happen to have experienced a previous stillbirth, then close monitoring should be done during the pregnancy.
  • Monitor the activity of your baby around 28 weeks for high risk pregnancies.
  • If you are past your date of delivering, then consider discussing that with your doctor. Pregnancies longer than 42 weeks may at risk for experiencing still births.
  • Always request opinions during the pregnancy to ensure that your mind is at ease.

Secret to rose scent surprises scientists

Knowing how the flowers make (and lose) their smell could help breeders grow sweeter blooms

BY
7:00AM, JULY 23, 2015
Not all roses are sweetly scented. By comparing one that isn’t to one that is — the Papa Meilland rose (shown) — researchers discovered a surprising enzyme behind the signature “rose” scent.

Stopping to smell the roses might be a letdown — and now researchers know why.

The sweet-smelling flowers create their scent using a surprising tool. It’s an enzyme — a hardworking molecule — that was thought to help clean up DNA. This enzyme is missing in many roses. And that seems to explain why their blooms also lack a sweet floral aroma. The new finding could help scientists solve the thorny problem of why some rose varieties bred for dazzling color and long-lasting blooms have lost their scent.

“Usually, the first thing that people do when they get [a rose] is smell it,” says Philippe Hugueney. He studies plant biochemistry at the National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) in Colmar, France. “Most of the time it’s not scented and it’s very disappointing,” he says.

When roses do smell like roses, it’s because they give off a distinct mix of chemicals, he says. Called monoterpenes, these chemicals can be found in many odorous plants. Monoterpenes come in different shapes and scents, but all have 10 atoms of the element carbon. In roses, these chemicals usually are floral and citrusy. But it was unknown how roses make — or lose — their scent.

Other plants make fragrance chemicals using specialized chemicals. Called enzymes, these molecules speed up chemical reactions without taking part in them. In flowers, these enzymes tend to snip two pieces off an unscented monoterpene to create a scented one.

But when Hugueney’s team compared smelly and smell-free roses, they discovered a different enzyme at work. Called RhNUDX1, It was active in the sweet-smelling roses but mysteriously shut down in the bland blooms. The scientists shared this discovery July 3 in Science.

RhNUDX1 is similar to enzymes in bacteria that remove toxic compounds from DNA. But in roses, the enzyme trims a single piece from an unscented monoterpene. Other enzymes in rose petals then finish the job by chopping off the last piece.

The discovery makes scientists wonder why roses use this unusual method, says Dorothea Tholl. She is a plant biochemist at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg. It may be because RhNUDX1 is more efficient than other enzymes, she says.

Hugueney hopes his team’s finding helps future roses come up smelling like — well, roses.

Power Words

(for more about Power Words, click here)

bacterium (plural bacteria)  A single-celled organism. These dwell nearly everywhere on Earth, from the bottom of the sea to inside animals.

carbon  The chemical element having the atomic number 6. It is the physical basis of all life on Earth. Carbon exists freely as graphite and diamond. It is an important part of coal, limestone and petroleum, and is capable of self-bonding, chemically, to form an enormous number of chemically, biologically and commercially important molecules.

compound     (often used as a synonym for chemical) A compound is a substance formed from two or more chemical elements united in fixed proportions. For example, water is a compound made of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. Its chemical symbol is H2O.

DNA  (short for deoxyribonucleic acid) A long, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most living cells that carries genetic instructions. In all living things, from plants and animals to microbes, these instructions tell cells which molecules to make.

element  (in chemistry) Each of more than one hundred substances for which the smallest unit of each is a single atom. Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, lithium and uranium.

enzymes  Molecules made by living things to speed up chemical reactions.

molecule  An electrically neutral group of atoms that represents the smallest possible amount of a chemical compound. Molecules can be made of single types of atoms or of different types. For example, the oxygen in the air is made of two oxygen atoms (O2), but water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).

monoterpene  A type of molecule with 10 carbon atoms and 16 hydrogen atoms that may produce a scent.

toxic  Poisonous or able to harm or kill cells, tissues or whole organisms. The measure of risk posed by such a poison is its toxicity.

variety    (in agriculture) The term that plant scientists give to a distinct breed (subspecies) of plant with desirable traits. If the plants were bred intentionally, they are referred to as cultivated varieties, orcultivars.

Source:http://bit.ly/1IpMU8h

An Inside Look Into the Scientific Editing Process

4438e8046cbaabc2984b52b2c2f30760Scientific altering is a system to guarantee that a composed work is free from mistakes. Researchers regularly employ scientific editors to edit their work, particularly the individuals who wish to have their scientific journals distributed in books or journals. On the other hand, the majority of them don’t see how the scientific altering procedure ought to work. Before you employ a proofreader to chip away at your paper, make time to peruse the strides on the most proficient method to accurately review a scientific archive.

708ef77160df03455376955d93962797There are numerous editors online who represent considerable authority in reviewing scientific records. Lamentably, not every one of them take after the intensive altering methodology that ought to be utilized as a part of checking scientific and specialized original copies. The following are the three essential stages in the scientific altering procedure.

To start with stage:

At the point when the editors get the scientific paper, they check the substance first. It is vital that the proofreader who experiences the archive has an in number foundation in the related range. There are just a couple altering organizations who utilize PhD editors in distinctive science orders to guarantee that there is dependably an accessible authority who will review the scientific composition. The foundation of the scientific manager is useful in checking and enhancing the substance of your research work. The manager can make recommendations to include supporting data or preclude pointless information to enhance the nature of your research.

Second stage:

In this stage, the supervisor will completely filter the entire original copy for dialect lapses. All sentence structure, spelling and accentuation missteps will be redressed. It is vital that the editorial manager guarantees that the nature of English in the record is on a standard with the elevated requirements of scientific distributers. The manager may amend or rework some content to make it more intelligible to perusers. A few editors, who are mindful that the article is arranged by an ESL speaker, endeavor to clean the dialect and make it appear as though it was arranged by a local English essayist.

Third stage:

This is the last stride in the altering procedure. Editors experience the record once again to guarantee that there are no mistakes missed. It is best if a senior editorial manager does the last alter so the amendments made are additionally reviewed. The record is likewise checked for irregularities. Before the amended archive is come back to the customer, the proofreader additionally checks the organizing of the report.

A decent editorial manager can do every one of these strides. Then again, it is best to contract a scientific altering organization who can allot a few expert editors to review your composition. Trusted altering firms like scientific research are one of only a handful couple of suppliers who take after this review process. Ask about their scientific altering administration today!

Most of the insightful and academic journals, which work in this procedure, are of fantastic and significance.

An Easy Research Support for Researchers

In this time of innovation, the old school method for distributed papers ought to likewise change. The International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research is one spot to discover all the research work under the fields of science, building and innovation. You can overlook going to a library just keeping in mind the end goal to discover research material for your postulation. You can sit right where you are and bring the material online through this online journal. These journals are working marvels for individuals by sparing their time and endeavors to go and surf through racks of papers and books. Additionally, they don’t generally need to make a go at asking for information and data. They should do nothing more than call for paper. The substance in these papers is superb substance is likewise sufficiently dependable to get the perfect measure of data for your research paper or proposition.

The best part about this scientific research is that it is worldwide. All the best individuals from everywhere throughout the world have entry to this journal and the upgrades achieve every single individual identified with the postulation and research. You have a decent degree to advance your work amongst the best of individuals and get their appreciation. You likewise have an alternative to talk about your research venture with them. You have to have an enrolled record so as to have the capacity to do that. When you are enlisted, you can experience all the research papers distributed under this online journal and help your work. You can isolate the papers through years and months. This helps you pick the accurate sequential substance which will help you with your research better. Time and date is something essential in innovation and science. This journal has an included advantage. It is an extremely eco-accommodating journal as no wastage of paper or ink. It advances itself as a Green journal.

Beginning from scientific journals, to postulation material, meeting papers you get each and everything here. This journal is additionally regarding the scientific group which generally gives you an astonishing gathering of people to your work. For reference material, you should simply call for paper. Presenting your articles and distributed your proposal was never less demanding. Working in a learning filled and eco-accommodating environment will most likely help your substance and to improve it with each update you make. You are granted with a digitally e-marked testament for distributed your work. It has and would never be any simpler. The authentication holds an accreditation of your proposal and research work done on the theme you picked.

All the most recent news and data in that specific field and point likewise helps you to comprehend what you have to search for, who has distributed what content and what all would you be able to chip away at. Along these lines, fundamentally it helps you comprehend your extension for innovation. You basically need to sign on to different sites and pay special mind to the important data, register with the site and fly in the information bank.