分类目录归档:Scientific Papers

Scientific paper:Higgs Masses in a Renormalization-GroupImproved Non-Minimal Model of Supersymmetry

124 (1)Authors: Partha Pratim Pal1, Biswanath Ghosh2

Abstract: We give a systematic study of Higgs masses in a non-minimal model of supersymmetry with renormalization group improvement for extended values of the parameters like tanβ , MC (the mass of charged Higgs) and Q (the squark mass scale), in the context of LHC experiments. Several new and interesting results are obtained.

Keywords: Higgs Mass, Non-Minimal Model of Supersymmetry, Renormalization Group, LHC Experiment

Introduction: Supersymmetry is a very important tool for studying physics beyond standard model [1]. It is being vigorously pursued for detecting supersymmetric particles in nature. The supersymmetric particles include the supersymmetric partners of ordinary particles and supersymmetric Higgs bosons. The minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) [2], for example, contain two CP-even neutral Higgs bosons, a CP-odd neutral Higgs boson and two charged Higgs bosons. The relaxation of any of the assumptions of MSSM leads to non-minimal model (NMSSM). Ellis et al [3] gave non-minimal model by inclusion of a single Higgs field whose vacuum expectation value determined the mixing of the two Higgs doublet of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. These authors studied the spectrum and couplings of Higgs bosons in this extended model and compared them with those in the minimal model. In their extensive work [3], Ellis et al analyzed the possible production mechanisms and phenomenological signatures of the different Higgs bosons at the TeV-scale.

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Scientific article: Riemann’s Hypothesis and Critical Line of Prime Numbers

Authors: Mazurkin Peter Matveevich


Abstract: The binary numeral system is applied to the proof of a hypothesis of Riemann to a number of prime numbers. On the ends of blocks of a step matrix of binary decomposition of prime numbers are located a reference point. Because of them there is a jump of a increment of a prime number. The critical line and formula for its description is shown, interpretation of mathematical constants of the equation is given. Increment of prime numbers appeared an evident indicator. Increment is a quantity of increase, addition something. If a number of prime numbers is called figuratively “Gauss-Riemann’s ladder”, increment can assimilate to the steps separated from the ladder. It is proved that the law on the critical line is observed at the second category of a binary numeral system. This model was steady and at other quantities of prime numbers. Uncommon zero settle down on the critical line, and trivial – to the left of it. There are also lines of reference points, primary increment and the line bending around at the left binary number. Comparison of ranks of different power is executed and proved that the critical line of Riemann is only on the second vertical of a number of prime numbers and a number of their increments.

Keywords: Prime Numbers, Complete Series, Increment, Critical Line, Root 1/2

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Milton’s Portrayal of Satan in Paradise Lost and the Notion of Heroism


Authors: Jamal Subhi Ismail Nafi’

Abstract: This paper examines the question whether Satan is really the hero of John Milton’s great epic poemParadise Lost (1667). There are controversial debates over this issue, and most critics believe that, although Satan acts and speaks heroically, God is the real hero of the poem, not Satan. The paper adopts the analytical approach. The findings of the paper reveal that the central character Satan is a devil that acts for his own self-interests, and cannot do good, even to his followers, the fallen angels. The paper finally shows that, every impulse in Satan towards good has died out. The element of nobility that redeemed his character at the outset from absolute baseness has been killed. Hardly therefore shall we believe that Milton meant us to see in the fallen and ever falling archangel the hero of his poem. That position surely belongs to Adam.

Keywords: Deterioration, Devil, Heaven, Hell, Heroism, Milton, Paradise Lost, Punishment, Satan, Theology

This paper was published in International Journal of Literature and Arts,  if you like, you can read the full article for free in SciencePG.

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Study on Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Dabieshan Pilot Site Based on the Model of Ecological Footprint


Miao Tian, Huanggang Normal University, Business School, Huanggang City, HuBei Province, China

Quantitative evaluation and monitor the status and the degree of sustainable development is a hot and difficult problem. Among the existed evaluation methods and models, ecological footprint is a comprehensive and practical method. Since it was introduced into China in 1999, it has been widely used in the study of regional ecological sustainable development. The authors take Dabieshan Pilot Site as the research object, based on the introduction of basic principle and method of ecological footprint, calculate the ecological footprint of Dabieshan Pilot Site in 2008.The results show that, the ago-ecological footprint of Dabieshan Pilot Site is 1.379042hm2/person, while the available ecological capacity is 1.094089hm2/person, per capita ecological deficit is 0.284953hm2/person. The agriculture development in Dabieshan Pilot Site is in the state of unsustainable. We analyze the reasons and put forward the issues which we would focus on in the next stage

Agriculture, Sustainable Development, Ecological Footprint, Dabieshan Pilot Site

It’s a scientific paper published in International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, if you like, you can read full research article in SciencePG.

The Unification of Mass and Energy


Edwin Zong

Oasis Medical Group Inc., Las Vegas NV USA

Abstract: Our universe is an amazing place where matter floats. The endless stories about changing of mass or energy in the universe may overwhelm all tabloid writers. However, Einstein found a very simple way to cover all the stories in “One” equation: E=MC². Yes, the “C” actually stands for speed of light (photon) in the vacuum. Few will argue photons are electromagnetic/radiation power. However, many deny photon’s mass status. In this paper, the author will assure you that photon is mass, which also happens to serve the foundation for all gravitational power/positional energy that exists today after a big bang. ⑴ Furthermore, the author will also assure you that neutrino is the dark matter that floats in the space chilling with electrons (¯ and ⁺). Again, the author assures you that the famous gamma ray burst is just cosmic-sized of our well-studied experiment in our lab: e¯ + e⁺ → γ + γ! Our current universe’s mass and energy (detectable or undetectable) are all derived from a big bang’s photons. The primary objective of this study is to uncover the unified origin for both mass and energy in the universe along with their evolutionary path in the discipline of Newtonian physics.

Keywords: Photon, Neutrino, Gamma Ray, Big Bang, Dark Matters


The gravity means that positioned objects are orbiting around another celestial body simultaneously with or without physical contacts. The single orbiting energy/power unifies matter and particles, because particles possess orbiting power/gravity as well when they are coupled.

The object may lose its gravity of significance when it flies out of its orbit. In an enclosed system, without outside influence, a free fall apple may lose its gravity of significance until it touches down the earth then; it regains its gravity of significance.  The same principle apparently applies to the photons as well. The un-coupled light photon possesses little positional energy/gravity, but once it is captured and coupled in an apple tree. Such light photon now becomes part of an apple tree or mass with gravity of significance. Being part of an apple, the stationed photons satisfy all definition for mass. The stationed/coupled photons are mass; the separated/single photon is mass as well…

If you are interested in this scientific paper, you can read full article for free here:http://bit.ly/1JlokFX

Microcontroller Based Automatic Solar Tracking System with Mirror Booster



Protik Kumar Das1, Mir Ahasan Habib1, Mohammed Mynuddin2

Abstract: This paper is designed solar tracking system with mirror booster using microcontroller. Solar energy is rapidly becoming an alternative means of electrical source all over the world. To make effective use of solar energy, its efficiency must be maximized. A feasible approach to maximizing the power output of solar array is by sun tracking. This paper deals with the design and construction of solar tracking system by using a stepper motor, gear motor, photo diode. Mirror is used as booster to maximize the efficiency. The whole frame will travel circularly and the mirror will travel from south to north and vice-versa. The prototype is considered around a programmed microcontroller which controls the system by communicating with sensors and motor driver based on movement of the sun. The performance and characteristics of the solar tracker are experimentally analyzed.

Keywords: Types of Renewable Energy, Types of Tracking Mechanism, Gear Motor, Maximize the Panel Efficiency


Energy is a key to the advancement and prosperity of humans. With civilization development the energy consumption has increased steadily. To sustain the current human development more energy is required in near future. The primary solution is to burn more fossil fuels [1] .But burning more and more fossil fuels will cause environmental problems such as water pollution, Air pollution, soil contamination and most dangerously greenhouse gases. The increased use of fossil fuels has significantly increased greenhouse gas emission, particularly carbon dioxide, creating an enhanced greenhouse effect known as global warming. Fossil fuels required millions of year to generate and going to finish in very short time. However, the world supplies of fossil fuels which is our main source of electricity will start to run out from the years 2020 to 2060.The increasing demand for energy, the continuous reduction in existing sources of fossil fuels and the growing concern regarding environment pollution, have pushed mankind to explore new technologies for the production of electrical energy using clean, renewable sources, such as solar energy, wind energy, etc [2]. Renewable energy resources will be an increasingly important part of power generation in the new millennium. Besides assisting in the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases, they add the much- needed flexibility to the energy resource mix by decreasing the dependence on fossil fuels. Among the renewable energy resources, solar energy is the most essential and prerequisite resource of sustainable energy because of its ubiquity, abundance, and sustainability. Regardless of the intermittency of sunlight, solar energy is widely available and completely free of cost. Recently, photovoltaic (PV) [3]-[6] system is well recognized and widely utilized to convert the solar energy for electric power applications. Among the non-conventional, renewable energy sources, solar energy affords great potential for conversion into electric power, able to ensure an important part of the electrical energy needs of the planet.

The sun is the prime source of energy, directly or indirectly, which is also the fuel for most renewable systems. Among all renewable systems, photovoltaic system is the one which has a great chance to replace the conventional energy resources. Solar panel directly converts solar radiation into electrical energy. Solar panel is mainly made from semiconductor materials. Si used as the major component of solar panels, which is maximum 24.5% efficient. Unless high efficient solar panels are invented, the only way to enhance the performance of a solar panel is to increase the intensity of light falling on it. Solar trackers are the most appropriate and proven technology to increase the efficiency of solar panels through keeping the panels aligned with the sun’s position. Solar trackers get popularized around the world in recent days to harness solar energy in most efficient way. This is far more cost effective solution than purchasing additional solar panels [7]-[8]. In this paper the design methodology of a microcontroller based simple and easily programmed automatic solar tracker is presented. A prototype of automatic solar tracker ensures feasibility of this design methodology.

Solar tracking is necessary for most of the solar systems to collect maximum amount solar radiation. Concentrators require a high degree of accuracy to ensure that the reflected sunlight is directed to the absorber, which is at the focal point of the reflector. Sun Tracker can help increase overall efficiency of a solar installation by over 40%. The applications of solar tracking system are given below: i) Satellite dish ii) Concentrating collectors (cylindrical parabolic collector, parabolic dish collector, power tower concentrating collector etc.), iii) PV cell and iv) Flat plate collector etc.


Photo source:http://bit.ly/1TA2KwZ

Annealing Effect on Efficiency of Aspilia Africana Flowers Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Adenike Boyo1, Henry Boyo2, Olasunkanmi Kesinro1

Abstract: Energy was generated by using methanol as a solvent to extract dye from Aspilia africana Flowers. The maximum absorption of the extracted dye was observed at different wavelengths (350-1000nm). TiO2 was annealed at different temperatures and phytochemical screening was done. We observed insignificant presence of anthocyanin compared to flavonoids in the flowers. The solar energy conversion efficiency changes from 0.21% to 0.52%, due to the sintering of the TiO2 at different temperatures. The increase in solar energy conversion efficiency can be attributed to the changes in the morphology, crystalline quality, and the optical properties caused by the sintering effect.

Keywords: Aspilia Africana, Methanol, Anthocyanin, Flavonoids and Dye Sensitized Solar Cell


The technology of harvesting solar energy in producing photovoltaic systems has attracted worldwide attention. Several researches have been done on photovoltaic technologies which includes dye sensitized solar cells [1], [5],[8], organic solar cells [4], and multijunction solar cells [9]. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have played an important role in the development of photovoltaic technology, although encouraging efficiency of the DSSCs have been presented by many authors, but the use of the DSSCs is still not feasible for commercial applications. These low efficiencies of DSSCs might be due to challenges faced in obtaining suitable materials for its production. Thus, careful importance is placed in harnessing dyes that have a long lifespan, cheaper, and environmental friendly solar cells.

The nano-crystalline dye sensitized solar cell is a photo electrochemical cell. The basic working principle of DSSCs is that photons strike the monolayer of dye which gives up energy. This excites electrons from the dye, instead of generating electron – hole pairs. As shown in ‘Fig.1’ the solar cell consist of two conductive glass slides (ITO or FTO) with nanoparticle TiO2 sintered on one of the conducting glass slides, stained with the dye and the other conducting glass slide is carbonized with soot. DSSCs are placed in the category of third generation photovoltaics where new trends in the photovoltaic technology are applied. In the first generation PV cells, the electric interface is made between doped n-type and p-type bulk silicon. First generation PV cells provide the highest so far conversion efficiency. The second generation PV cells are based on thin film technology. These cells utilize less material and they thus drop the production cost, however, they are less efficient than the bulk cells. Both first and second generation cells are based on opaque materials and necessitate front-face illumination and moving supports to follow sun’s position. Thus they may be either set up in PV parks or on building roofs. Third generation solar cells, are based on nanostructured (mesoscopic) materials and they are made of purely organic or a mixture of organic and inorganic components, thus allowing for a vast and inexhaustible choice of materials.

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A liquid triiodide electrolyte is added in between the glass slide.. The absorption of photons causes dye molecules to be attached to the surface of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide which produces photoelectrons. The titanium dioxide is the photoanode, photoexcitation of the dye results in the transfer of electrons into the conduction band of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide.

Annealing nanoparticle titanium dioxide at different temperature plays an important role in the solar energy conversion performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. These affect the physical, chemical and optical characteristic of TiO2. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) can crystallize in three different phases namely: rutile (tetragonal), anatase (tetragonal) and brookite (orthorhombic) [10]. The rutile-TiO2 is thermodynamically stable at all temperatures and can be obtained in most crystal growth processes.

The anatase-TiO2 and brookite are less dense and less stable in comparism to the rutile-TiO2.phase [10].

We fabricated DSSCs using Aspilia africana flowers dye extracted from methanol and study the effect of annealing of TiO2 films at different temperature intervals from 1000C, to 500 0C for 30 minutes on the performance of DSSCs.

This study was borne out of the availability of these plants in Nigeria. Another important factor is that Nigeria uses about 3 trillion kWh of energy each year, and with energy requirement growing every year, it is the responsibility of the government and other institutions to develop energy harvesting technologies from renewable energy sources for a sustainable future.

Hence, in order to improve the generation of electricity in our country and beyond, it would be necessary that devices like dye-sensitized solar cells are produced at commercial scale to meet energy demands in Nigeria.

Read full research paper here:http://bit.ly/1MbkjCQ